[eigen] proposal for "clean" output arguments

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Hi all,

here is a proposal to deal with functions having output (or inout)
arguments. Currently the situation is quite a mess:

1 - some take non const references like
2 - some take pointers like LU::solve(const MatrixBase<T1>& B,
MatrixBase<T2>* X)
3 - some take const references like MatrixBase<T1>::swap(const MatrixBase<T2>&)

The main advantage of the solution 3 is that allows to use temporary
proxies, e.g.:


The main advantage of solution 2 is that it makes it clear what is an output:

m.lu().solve(b, &x);

The respective drawbacks of each method are pretty obvious I won't
enumerate them one more time...

So what I propose is to add a trivial Output<T> class mimicking a
reference T& that we'll be passed by value. Ok to make thing crystal
clear here is such a Output class:

template<typename T> class Output
    Output(T& obj) : m_object(obj) { }
    operator T&() { return m_object; }
    T& m_object;

then we add a output() member function to AnyMatrixBase<> :

Output<Derived> output() { return derived(); }

then the function LU::solve(const MatrixBase<T1>& B, MatrixBase<T2>*
X) can be rewritten:

LU::solve(const MatrixBase<T1>& B, Output<T2> _x) {
 T2& x(_x);
  // use x

and the user sill call it like this:

mat.lu().solve(b, xs.col(2).output());

For in-out argument we can do the same with a InOut<T> class, and a
AnyMatrixBase::inout() function.

Unless I missed something, I think this solution has all the
advantages that someone can expect:
- it is more C++ than pointers,
- it respects constness (unlike const references)
- it allows to use temporary proxies returned by a function (unlike
references and pointers)
- it make it crystal clear what is an output and an in-out arguments
when someone read a piece of code (unlike all other solutions)

The only limitation I can see is how to extend this concept to scalar
type arguments because we cannot have:

double x;

Note that if we don't make the ctor of Output explicit, then the
following we'll work:

void foo(Output<float> _x);

float x;

If we want to enforce to have "output" next to x, one possibility is
to add a global function output(T&) and make the ctor of Output

float x;

Note that such a global function will only work on declared objects,
and not on temporary proxies, that is why we really have to also have
the output() function as a member of AnyMatrixBase...

Of course, another drawback is more API changes...

What do you think ?


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